Cyber Infrastructure and Security

State-of-the-art Critical Infrastructures (CIs) are gradually becoming more and more dependent on information and communication technology (ICT) (such as networking, telecommunications, cloud, sensor and SCADA technologies), thereby rendering Critical Information Infrastructures (CIIs) a vital element of their functioning. This is very prominent in the case of modern port infrastructures, which tend to be highly dependent on the operation of complex, dynamic ICT-based maritime supply chains. Maritime supply chains comprise globally distributed, interconnected set of organizations including port authorities, ministries, maritime companies, ship industries, customs agencies, maritime/ insurance companies, other transport CIs (e.g. airports), other CIIs (e.g. transport networks , energy networks, telco networks), people, processes, services, products, and more. The interconnection of these actors and organizations relies typically on an interconnected web of transportation infrastructures and pathways, information technology, as well as cyber and energy networks. This emerging landscape of ICT-empowered CIIs-based critical infrastructures requires a paradigm shift in the way it assesses risks and vulnerabilities, as well as in relevant risk management methodologies.